Monday, March 11, 2019

Splenda is Poison!

Reposted from Dr. Mercola

New Study Finds Sucralose Is Metabolized and Stored in Your Body

Needless to say, the industry has vehemently defended sucralose (and all other chemical sweeteners), stating that it rapidly passes unmetabolized through your body and therefore has no biological effects. Alas, recent research has punched yet another giant hole in the argument that sucralose is a biologically inert chemical, showing it is in fact metabolized and that it accumulates in fat cells.
The study3,4 in question was published in the online version of the Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health August 21, 2018. An interview with the authors can be found on Inverse.5
Ten rats were given an average dose of 80.4 milligrams (mg) of sucralose per kilo per day (k/day) for 40 days. According to the researchers, this dosage is "within the range utilized in historical toxicology studies submitted for regulatory approval in North America, Europe and Asia."
Urine and feces were collected daily from each rat, and were analyzed using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS/MS), which "revealed two new biotransformation products that have not previously been reported."

Research Calls for New Safety Review of Sucralose

The two metabolites are acetylated forms of sucralose that are lipophilic, meaning they dissolve in and combine with fats. Sucralose itself is far less lipophilic, which has been part of the safety argument. According to the authors:
"These metabolites were present in urine and feces throughout the sucralose dosing period and still detected at low levels in the urine 11 days after discontinuation of sucralose administration and six days after sucralose was no longer detected in the urine or feces.
The finding of acetylated sucralose metabolites in urine and feces do not support early metabolism studies, on which regulatory approval was based, that claimed ingested sucralose is excreted unchanged (i.e., not metabolized).
The historical metabolic studies apparently failed to detect these metabolites in part because investigators used a methanol fraction from feces for analysis along with thin layer chromatography and a low-resolution linear radioactivity analyzer.
Further, sucralose was found in adipose tissue in rats two weeks after cessation of the 40-day feeding period even though this compound had disappeared from the urine and feces."
So, not only is sucralose metabolized, these metabolites accumulate in your fat tissues, where they remain for "an extended period of time" after you stop consuming sucralose. In all, these findings led the authors to conclude:
"These new findings of metabolism of sucralose in the gastrointestinal tract and its accumulation in adipose tissue were not part of the original regulatory decision process for this agent and indicate that it now may be time to revisit the safety and regulatory status of this organochlorine artificial sweetener."

Sucralose Is Not an Inert Compound

Previous research has also noted that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound, as claimed. In the 2013 paper,6 "Sucralose, a Synthetic Organochlorine Sweetener: Overview of Biological Issues," the authors state, in part:
"Sucralose and one of its hydrolysis products were found to be mutagenic at elevated concentrations in several testing methods … Both human and rodent studies demonstrated that sucralose may alter glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide 1 levels. Taken together, these findings indicate that sucralose is not a biologically inert compound."
Importantly, the study also notes that "Cooking with sucralose at high temperatures … generates chloropropanols, a potentially toxic class of compounds." Yet, Splenda is frequently recommended for cooking and baking,7 and is often used in processed foods in which high heat was involved.
Chloropropanols, which are still poorly understood, are thought to have adverse effects on your kidneys and may have carcinogenic effects.8 However, it's worth noting that chloropropanols are part of a class of toxins known as dioxins, and dioxins are known to cause cancer and endocrine disruption.

Sucralose May Cause Liver Damage With Regular Use, and More

Another study9 published online August 2, 2018, in the journal Morphologie, found sucralose caused "definite changes" in the liver of treated rats, "indicating toxic effects on regular ingestion." According to these researchers, their findings suggest "sucralose would be taken with caution to avoid hepatic damage."
In other words, regularly using Splenda could damage your liver. Here, adult rats were given a much higher (yet nonlethal) oral dose of sucralose — 3 grams (3,000 milligrams) per kilo body mass per day for 30 days, after which the animals' livers were dissected and compared to the livers of unexposed controls. According to the authors:
"Experimental rats showed features of patchy degeneration of hepatocytes along with Kupffer cells hyperplasia, lymphocytic infiltration, sinusoidal dilatation and fibrosis indicating a definite hepatic damage on regular ingestion of sucralose. Sinusoidal width was also found to be increased in experimental animals as compared to controls."
Studies have also linked sucralose consumption to:
Genotoxicity (DNA damage) and potentially adverse epigenetic effects.10 According to this paper, the acceptable daily intake set for sucralose may in fact be hundreds of times too high to ensure safety
Shrinkage of the thymus, up to 40 percent11,12
Enlargement of the liver and kidneys13,14
Calcification of the kidneys15,16
Increased leukocyte populations (immune system cells) in the thymus and lymph nodes17
Altered glucose, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 levels and responses,19 which raises your risk for Type 2 diabetes.
A study20 published in the journal Diabetes Care confirmed that, compared to controls, obese patients using sucralose experienced a greater incremental increase in peak plasma concentrations of glucose, a greater incremental increase in insulin and peak insulin secretion rate, along with a decrease in insulin clearance.
According to the authors, "These data demonstrate that sucralose affects the glycemic and insulin responses to an oral glucose load in obese people who do not normally consume non-nutritive sweeteners"
Alterations in P-glycoprotein (P-gp) levels, which could result in medications used in chemotherapy, AIDS treatment and treatments for heart conditions being shunted back into the intestines, rather than being absorbed by your body21

Commonly Reported Side Effects of Splenda

If you start searching for adverse events reports, you'll find scores of people reporting a variety of side effects from using Splenda. The following are common symptoms, usually noticed within a 24-hour period following consumption of a Splenda product:
Skin — Redness, itching, swelling, blistering, weeping, crusting, rash, eruptions or hives (itchy bumps or welts)
Lungs — Wheezing, tightness, cough or shortness of breath
Head — Swelling of the face, eyelids, lips, tongue or throat; headaches and migraines (severe headaches)
Nose — Stuffy nose, runny nose (clear, thin discharge), sneezing
Eyes — Red (bloodshot), itchy, swollen or watery
Stomach — Bloating, gas, pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea or bloody diarrhea
Heart — Palpitations or fluttering
Joints — Joint pains or aches
NeurologicalAnxiety, dizziness, spaced-out sensation, depression

Are You Having a Reaction to Splenda?

To determine if you're having a reaction to artificial sweeteners — be it Splenda, aspartame or any of the others — take the following steps:
  1. Eliminate all artificial sweeteners from your diet for two weeks
  2. After two weeks, reintroduce your artificial sweetener of choice in a significant quantity (about three servings daily)
  3. Avoid other artificial sweeteners during this period
  4. Do this for one to three days and take notice of how you feel, especially as compared to when you were abstaining from artificial sweeteners
  5. If you don't notice a difference in how you feel after reintroducing your primary artificial sweetener for a few days, it's a safe bet you're able to tolerate it acutely, meaning your body doesn't have an immediate, adverse response. Just know that this doesn't mean your health won't be damaged in the long run
  6. If you've been consuming more than one type of artificial sweetener, repeat steps 2 through 4 with the next sweetener on your list
If you do experience side effects from an artificial sweetener (or any other food additive for that matter), please report it to the FDA (if you live in the U.S.). It's easy to make a report — just go to the FDA Consumer Complaint Coordinator page, find the phone number for your state and make a call to report your reaction.
Keep in mind that some medications may contain sucralose as well, even if it's not listed on the label. If you continue to experience any of the symptoms above even though you're avoiding Splenda and other artificial sweeteners, then it may be worth investigating whether any of the medications you're taking contain artificial sweeteners.

Splenda Has Never Been Proven Safe for Human Consumption

The FDA claims they reviewed over 100 studies conducted on Splenda. What they don't tell you is that: a) only six of these studies were human trials — and only two of them were published before the FDA approved sucralose for human consumption — and b) the remaining animal studies actually revealed potential health problems, including:22
  • Decreased red blood cells (a sign of anemia) at levels above 1,500 mg/kg/day
  • Increased male infertility by interfering with sperm production and vitality, as well as brain lesions at higher doses
  • Spontaneous abortions in nearly half the rabbit population given sucralose, compared to zero aborted pregnancies in the control group
  • A 23 percent death rate in rabbits, compared to a 6 percent death rate in the control group
What's more, the two human trials had a grand total of 36 subjects, only 23 of whom were actually given sucralose, and the longest of these trials lasted just four days and looked at sucralose in relation to tooth decay, not human tolerance.23
Even more shocking, the absorption of Splenda into the human body was studied on a grand total of six men. Based on that study,24 the FDA allowed the findings to be generalized as being representative of the entire human population, including women, children, the elderly and those with any chronic illness — none of whom were ever examined.

Healthier Sugar Substitutes

Two of the best sugar substitutes are from the plant kingdom: Stevia and Lo Han Kuo (also spelled Luo Han Guo). Stevia, a highly sweet herb derived from the leaf of the South American stevia plant, is sold as a supplement. It's completely safe in its natural form and can be used to sweeten most dishes and drinks.
Lo Han Kuo is similar to Stevia, but it's a bit more expensive and harder to find. In China, the Lo Han fruit has been used as a sweetener for centuries, and it's about 200 times sweeter than sugar. A third alternative is to use pure glucose, also known as dextrose.
Dextrose is only 70 percent as sweet as sucrose, so you'll end up using a bit more of it for the same amount of sweetness, making it slightly more expensive than regular sugar. Still, it's well worth it for your health as it does not contain any fructose whatsoever. Contrary to fructose, glucose can be used directly by every cell in your body and as such is a far safer sugar alternative.

Saturday, March 9, 2019

So, How Much Aluminum is in Vaccines?

The first thing to understand is that the aluminum in vaccines differs from the aluminum we are exposed to on a daily basis, in that it is in nanoparticle form. This nanoparticle form of aluminum binds tightly to the bacteria and viruses and polysorbate 80, and can jump straight through the blood brain barrier. (2)
“Ok fine, but so what? It’s not that much aluminum anyway.”
Let me ask you this. Why did they have to put aluminum in the vaccine in the first place? Because it’s an adjuvant, and they need to put it in there to get a stronger reaction from your immune system. They know that aluminum is toxic to your nervous system and will therefore cause a very strong reaction, and cause you to make antibodies associated with it. That’s why it’s in there. BECAUSE it’s toxic and can cause a reaction. (1)
According to the FDA’s Code of Federal Regulations, the maximum FDA allowance for parental aluminum is 25 mcg per day, which translates to up to 5 mcg per kilogram.
This would translate, as per FDA guidelines, to a maximum daily dose for the following weights:
8 pound baby—18.16 mcg
15 pound baby—34.05 mcg
30 pound toddler—68.1 mcg
How much aluminum in is the vaccines?
HIB: 225 mcg
Hep B: 250 mcg
DTap: 170-625 depending on manufacturer
Pneumococcus: 125mcg
Hep A: 240 mcg
If 8 vaccines are given in one visit, which isn’t uncommon, it can total more than 1,000 mcg of aluminum (fyi that’s not safe for a 350 pound adult according to the FDA limit.) (4)
#InformedConsent #KnowWhatYoureDoing
This information is summarized from an excerpt of “The Truth About Vaccines” documentary series by Ty Bollinger (
Sources are cited below:
(1) Dr. Toni Bark
(2) Dr. Larry Pavelsky
(4) Ty Bollinger

Monday, March 4, 2019

Berberine: Benefits & Uses

Reposted from Dr. Mercola

Berberine has long been used in traditional Chinese and Ayurvedic medicines to help fight off bacteria, viruses and other harmful microorganisms. Its extracts and decoctions were even consumed to help relieve gastrointestinal problems, such as bacterial diarrhea, intestinal parasites and ocular trachoma infections.1 However, recent studies show that there’s actually more to berberine than its antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties. In fact, its potential health benefits make it one of the most powerful supplements today.

What Is Berberine?

Berberine is a bitter-tasting, yellow-colored alkaloid compound that can be extracted from several medicinal herbs and plants.2 Initially known for its potent antibacterial and anti-inflammatory properties, berberine also plays an essential role on numerous physiological processes in the body, since it’s one of the few chemicals that can activate adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK).

To give you a background, AMPK, which is also known as the “metabolic master switch,” is an enzyme that controls how energy is produced in your body and how it’s used by the cells. By activating this enzyme, berberine helps regulate the biological activities that normalize lipid, glucose and energy imbalances.

The positive effects of berberine to your overall health are relatively similar to the effects of proper diet, exercise and weight loss. While I don’t recommend replacing healthy lifestyle and dietary habits with this supplement, its potential health benefits can make it a worthy addition to your routine.

There are different types of berberine supplements in the market today, with the most common one being berberine hydrochloride (HCL). Its other formulations include berberine sulfate, berberine citrate and berberine phosphate.3 Your body can absorb and use berberine faster than it can be measured by a blood test. It can also form complexes with other compounds.4

Natural Sources of Berberine

As mentioned above, berberine is a naturally occurring compound found in several medicinal plants and herbs. It’s usually extracted from the roots, barks, leaves and rhizomes of any of the following plants:5,6,7
Oregon grape
European barberry
Chinese goldthread
Phellodendron (also known as cork tree)
Tree turmeric
Tinospora cordifolia (also known as Guduchi)
Prickly poppy
Californian poppy
Yerba mansa

Berberine Provides a Wide Range of Health Benefits

The ability to activate the AMPK is, perhaps, the most valuable benefit of berberine, since this leads to better metabolism and mitochondrial health, which in turn helps support other physiological processes in the body.8 Along with its anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and antimicrobial properties, berberine may provide the following health benefits:
Helps control Type 2 diabetes: Berberine may be useful for the management Type 2 diabetes, as it helps improve insulin sensitivity, reduce the production of glucose in the liver, promote healthy lipid metabolism and stimulate the absorption of glucose in the cells.
Aids in weight loss: Studies show that berberine may help reduce body weight by improving the function of fat-regulating hormones like insulin and leptin.9
It also helps inhibit the growth of fat cells and improve the activity of brown fat, which converts fats into energy.
Helps improve heart health: Berberine may help improve heart health by reducing your risk for diabetes and obesity, which are some of the biggest risk factors for heart disease.
Helps ease depression and anxiety: Studies have shown that berberine may help alleviate depression and anxiety, since it increases the levels of serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine in the brain.10,11
Read more about this topic in this article, “Berberine May Ease Symptoms of Anxiety and Depression — And Much More.”
Aids in the management of cancer: Studies show that berberine may help reduce the risk of certain types of cancer from worsening by inhibiting tumor growth and cell proliferation.12,13
Helps strengthen the immune system: Berberine may help improve immune function by maintaining healthy gut flora, providing antioxidant properties and activating white blood cells, which are responsible for inhibiting infections.14
Helps control non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD): Research suggests that berberine may be a useful supplement for people with NAFLD, as it helps decrease fat buildup in the liver and regulate hepatic lipid metabolism.15

Some of the other uses for berberine include burns, glaucoma, hepatitis, menopausal symptoms, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and osteoporosis, among others. However, further studies are still needed to confirm its benefits for these conditions.16

Studies Support the Benefits of Berberine for Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation and Cancer

According to the Natural Medicine Journal, berberine may be considered for three general conditions: metabolic syndrome, inflammation and cancer. The positive effects of berberine for these conditions are also backed by a number of scientific studies, most of which were conducted in recent years.17
For instance, a pilot study done in 2008 compared the efficiency and safety of berberine for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes to that of metformin, a common diabetes drug. Results show that berberine works just as well as metformin when it comes to controlling blood sugar levels. What makes it even better is that it does not cause any life-threatening side effects unlike most diabetic medications.18
Another study published in the Journal of Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders also confirms the positive effects of berberine on metabolic syndrome and insulin sensitivity. According to this study, taking 500 milligrams of berberine daily for a span of three months helped lower systolic blood pressure levels, decrease waistline in females and increase insulin sensitivity.19
Meanwhile, the anti-inflammatory properties of berberine have also been evaluated in several studies. A study published in the Journal of Rhinology states that berberine may help reduce inflammation caused by allergic rhinitis.20 It may also help treat gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, according to another research published in the American Journal of Physiology.21
The cancer-fighting properties of berberine are also supported by scientific evidence. For example, a study conducted in 2009 found that berberine may help control cancer, as it helps stop the growth of tumor and the spread of cancer cells.22

Possible Side Effects That You May Experience When Taking Berberine      

Berberine has a remarkable safety profile, and according to a study published in the American Journal of Physiology, it does not exhibit toxicity in the cells.23 Keep in mind, though, that it may still cause a few side effects if taken incorrectly. Some of the side effects that are commonly associated with this supplement include:24
Stomach pain
Berberine is possibly unsafe for pregnant and breastfeeding women, since it can be transferred to the infant through breastmilk or by crossing the placenta. Newborn infants who were exposed to berberine are reported to develop kernicterus, a rare type of brain damage.
Berberine may also interact with other medications. For instance, it inhibits the CYP3A enzymes, which are necessary for metabolizing many drugs. This lowers your body’s ability to break down certain types of medications, enhancing their effects and putting you at risk of an overdose.
It also hinders the absorption of tetracycline and other antibiotics, and augments the effect of oral hypoglycemic drugs. That said, make sure that you consult your doctor before taking this supplement along with other medications.25,26 It’s also worth noting that berberine is a potent alkaloid, so I suggest that you cycle its intake.

Other Ways to Optimize Your Metabolism and Mitochondrial Health

Taking berberine is not enough to improve your overall health — you need to put in some effort too. In order to maximize the positive effects of this supplement, it’s best to pair it with these healthy lifestyle and dietary habits:
Follow a ketogenic diet: The ketogenic diet is centered on eating high-fat, low-carb and moderate-protein meals to reach the state of nutritional ketosis, wherein your body burns fat for fuel instead of glucose.
One of the many health benefits of this dietary approach is improved metabolic and mitochondrial function, since it decreases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and secondary free radicals in your body, which are the primary causes of damaged cells and mitochondrial DNA.
Exercise regularly: Regular exercise not only promotes the production of new mitochondria, but it also stimulates mitophagy, which is the process of removing damaged mitochondria from the cells to maintain proper cellular function.
Boost your nutrient levels: Aside from berberine, there are other nutrients that may help support proper mitochondrial function, including ubiquinol, magnesium, omega-3 fatty acids and B vitamins. Y

Fatty Liver Disease Is Triggered by Choline Deficiency

Reposted from Dr. Mercola

Choline, initially discovered in 1862,1 was officially recognized as an essential nutrient for human health by the Institute of Medicine in 1998.2 This nutrient, which you need to get from your diet, is required for:3
Healthy fetal development4 Choline is required for proper neural tube closure,5 brain development and healthy vision.6 Research shows mothers who get sufficient choline impart lifelong memory enhancement to their child due to changes in the development of the hippocampus (memory center) of the child’s brain.7 Choline deficiency also raises your risk of premature birth, low birth weight and preeclampsia
The synthesis of phospholipids, the most common of which is phosphatidylcholine, better known as lecithin, which constitutes between 40 and 50 percent of your cellular membranes and 70 to 95 percent of the phospholipids in lipoproteins and bile8
Nervous system health — Choline is necessary for making acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter involved in healthy muscle, heart and memory performance9
Cell messaging, by producing cell-messaging compounds10
Fat transport and metabolism — Choline is needed to carry cholesterol from your liver, and a choline deficiency could result in excess fat and cholesterol buildup11
DNA synthesis, aiding in the process along with other vitamins, such as folate and B12
Methylation reactions12
Healthy mitochondrial function13
Studies have linked higher choline intake to a range of benefits, including a decreased risk for heart disease,14 a 24 percent decreased risk for breast cancer,15 and the prevention of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, which is largely driven by high-sugar diets, as opposed to excess alcohol consumption).
In fact, choline appears to be a key controlling factor in the development of fatty liver by enhancing secretion of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles in your liver,16 required to safely transport fat out of your liver. Researchers has also discovered evidence of epigenetic mechanisms of choline,17 which also helps explain how choline helps maintain healthy liver function.

Choline Deficiency May Be a Primary Driver of NAFLD

NAFLD is the most common form of liver disease in the U.S., with an estimated prevalence of 3018 to 40 percent19 among the adult population. Considering about 80 percent of Americans are likely insulin resistant,20 and an estimated 90 percent of the U.S. population is deficient in choline,21 the high prevalence of NAFLD is not surprising.
According to Chris Masterjohn, who has a Ph.D. in nutritional science, choline deficiency actually appears to be a far more significant trigger of NAFLD than excess fructose, and in his view, the rise in NAFLD is largely the result of shunning liver and egg yolks.
“More specifically, I currently believe that dietary fat, whether saturated or unsaturated, and anything that the liver likes to turn into fat, like fructose and ethanol, will promote the accumulation of fat as long as we don’t get enough choline,” Masterjohn writes, adding:22
“Once that fat accumulates, the critical factor igniting an inflammatory fire to this fat is the consumption of too much PUFA (polyunsaturated fat from vegetable … oils).”
In his article,23 Masterjohn reviews the medical literature supporting this view. The link between choline and fatty liver initially emerged from research into Type 1 diabetes. Studies in the 1930s demonstrated that lecithin in egg yolk (which contains high amounts of choline) could cure fatty liver disease in Type 1 diabetic dogs. They later found choline alone provided the same benefit. Masterjohn goes on to explain:24
“We now know that choline is necessary to produce a phospholipid called phosphatidylcholine (PC) … a critical component of the very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) particle, which we need to make in order to export fats from our livers.
The amino acid methionine can act as a precursor to choline and can also be used to convert a different phospholipid called phosphatidylethanolamine directly into PC. Thus, the combined deficiency of choline and methionine will severely impair our abilities to package up the fats in our livers and to send them out into the bloodstream.”

High Saturated Fat Intake Increases Your Choline Requirement

What this means is that in order for your liver to be able to rid itself of excess fat, it needs choline — and the more dietary fat you consume, the higher your requirement for choline. This is true regardless of the type of fat but, interestingly, high saturated fat intake increase your need for choline to a greater degree than unhealthy fat intake such as corn oil.
According to Masterjohn, your “choline requirement is about 30 percent higher on a 30 percent butter diet than on a 30 percent corn oil diet.” That said, the most significant culprit in NAFLD is excessive fructose, as all of it must be metabolized by your liver and is primarily converted into body fat opposed to being used for energy like glucose. According to Masterjohn:25
“In 1949 … researchers showed that sucrose and ethanol had equal potential to cause fatty liver and the resulting inflammatory damage, and that increases in dietary protein, extra methionine and extra choline could all completely protect against this effect.26
Conversely, much more recent research has shown that sucrose is a requirement for the development of fatty liver disease in a methionine- and choline-deficient (MCD) model …
The MCD model produces not only the accumulation of liver fat, but massive inflammation similar to the worst forms of fatty liver disease seen in humans. What no one ever mentions about this diet is that it is primarily composed of sucrose and its fat is composed entirely of corn oil! …
The picture that is clearly emerging from all of these studies is that fat, or anything from which fat is made in the liver, such as fructose and ethanol, [is] required for the development of fatty liver. But in addition to this some factor — overwhelmingly, it appears to be choline deficiency — must deprive the liver of its ability to export that fat.”
However, while carbohydrates, healthy saturated fats and unhealthy PUFA-rich oils all have the ability to contribute to the buildup of fat in your liver, lipid peroxidation and associated inflammation is primarily driven by PUFA-rich oils such as corn oil.27 As noted by Masterjohn:28
“Corn oil probably promotes inflammation both by increasing vulnerability to lipid peroxidation because of its total PUFA content and by decreasing tissue levels of DHA because of its high omega-6-to-omega-3 ratio.”

Healthy Choline Sources

In the ‘70s, many doctors told their patients not to eat eggs, or at least egg yolks, to minimize their cholesterol and saturated fat intake. In reality, both of those are good for you, and eggs are one of the most important health foods available.
A single hard-boiled egg can contain anywhere from 113 milligrams29 (mg) to 147 mg30 of choline, or about 25 percent of your daily requirement, making it one of the best choline sources in the American diet.31 Only grass fed beef liver beats it, with 430 mg of choline per 100-gram serving.32 As noted in the Fatty Liver Diet Guide:33
“Eggs rank very high on the list of foods that are high in either lecithin, which converts to choline, or in choline itself. Note that this is the egg yolks only, not egg whites, which only have traces of this micronutrient.
Choline is essential in the production of phosphatidylcholine, a fat molecule called a phospholipid. But wait! Isn’t all fat bad? No — especially if it is essential to overall health and in particular, liver health. Simply put — if you don’t have enough choline, your liver can’t move out fat. It instead begins to collect within your liver, creating fatty liver.”
Other healthy choline sources include:
Wild-caught Alaskan salmon34
Krill oil — One 2011 study35,36 found 69 choline-containing phospholipids in krill oil, including 60 phosphatidylcholine substances, which helps protect against liver disease (including hepatitis and cirrhosis in alcoholics), reduce digestive tract inflammation and lessen symptoms associated with ulcerative colitis and irritable bowel syndrome
Organic pastured chicken
Vegetables such as broccoli, cauliflower and asparagus
Shiitake mushroom
Grass fed beef liver

Are You Getting Enough Choline to Protect Your Health?

While a dietary reference intake value has not yet been established for choline, the Institute of Medicine set an “adequate daily intake” value of 425 mg per day for women, 550 mg for men37 and 250 mg for children38 to help prevent a deficiency and potential organ and muscle damage.
Keep in mind, however, that requirements can vary widely, depending on your overall diet, age, ethnicity39 and genetic makeup. As noted in one paper,40 “People with one of several very common genetic polymorphisms in the genes of choline metabolism are more likely to develop hepatic dysfunction when deprived of choline.”
Another study41 found that in some men, 550 mg of choline per day was insufficient as they still developed organ dysfunction. Postmenopausal women were also more prone to develop signs of organ dysfunction than premenopausal women when deprived of adequate amounts of choline for just under six weeks.
Also, as discussed above, eating a diet high in (otherwise healthy) saturated fats may actually increase your choline requirement. Pregnant and breastfeeding women, athletes and postmenopausal women also need higher amounts.
If you already have NAFLD, you’d be wise to pay careful attention to choline as well. A study on the severity of 664 people with NAFLD found that decreased choline intake significantly increased their symptoms, including fibrosis (the thickening and scarring of connective tissue).42
The tolerable upper intake level for choline is 3.5 grams per day. Side effects of excessive choline include low blood pressure, sweating, diarrhea and a fishy body odor.43 As mentioned, eggs are a primary source of choline in the diet; with more than 100 mg of choline per egg yolk, they’re an easy way to ensure sufficiency. That said, supplementation, including with krill oil, is an option if you’re concerned about getting enough choline from your diet.